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Oracle TO_CHAR Function
 
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https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-to_char/ The Oracle TO_CHAR function is a common and useful string manipulation function. It allows you to convert a number or a date value into a string value. It allows you to take a number or a string, and convert it to a VARCHAR2 data type. The syntax of the function is: TO_CHAR( input_value, [format_mask], [nls_parameter] ) The parameters are: - input_value: this is the value to convert to a VARCHAR2 value. It can be one of many different number or date data types. - format_mask is an optional parameter and allows you to specify the format to display the output as. If this is omitted, the function uses a default format. - nls_parameter: this is also optional and lets you determine a regional parameter for displaying the output value. The format mask helps you determine what your output is displayed as. For example, if you provide the date of May 3rd, and the output is ‘03/05/2018’, how do you know if this is May 3rd or March 5th? Using a format mask can specify which format is used. The function is similar to the TO_NUMBER and TO_DATE functions, in that they both convert a specific data type. For more information about the Oracle TO_CHAR function, including all of the SQL shown in this video and the examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-to_char/
Views: 1679 Database Star
Oracle SQL Tutorial 33 - NUMBER Data Type
 
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This video we are going to discuss the NUMBER data type. The Number data type is used to store integers, and real numbers. When you create a column as a NUMBER, you can store pretty huge or pretty small numbers in this column. Now there are two things you need to consider when working with numbers, and that is the precision as well as the how big the number is. For example, we can store the number 9.9. This has two significant digits. We could also store the number 9.9 X 10^4. In this situation, the number is much larger, but the number of significant digits is the same. 9.9 are the significant digits. When we expand this out we just have 99000, and the zeros are just used for size and are not considered "significant" in this situation. In fact, you get a max precision of 38, but a maximum value of 9.99 * 10^125. You can also use this data type to store very small numbers. Check the docs for the specifics on maximums and minimums. You can provide it with two pieces of information: Precision - The total number of digits. Scale - The number of digits to the right of the decimal. You do it in this format: NUMBER (precision, scale). The important thing to remember in this is that when you specify a precision, you will be limiting the max size of the numbers. The secret behind this data type is that it is actually stored in scientific notation. That is we store a number and then we can multiply it by 10 raised to some power. This allows us to store much larger numbers without taking up a ton of space. The oracle docs actually gives a formula that you can use to see how much storage is going to be required for a specific NUMBER data type. How much precision can be used? The acceptable range is 1-38. What about scale? The range is actually -84 to 127. I'll explain the scale in more detail in an upcoming video. That's because there is a lot of confusing things here…What does it mean for the scale to be negative? How can we have a scale that is bigger that the total number of digits available through the precision. That's a topic for another video. It's important to understand that when we increase our scale, we decrease the max size of the number. For example if we have a precision of 5 and a scale of 3, the highest number we can store is 99.999. This is in contrast to a precision of 5 and a scale of 2 which allows for up to 99.999. Either way you get 5 significant digits, but the numbers of digits to the left and right of the decimal change. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Support me! http://www.patreon.com/calebcurry Subscribe to my newsletter: http://bit.ly/JoinCCNewsletter Donate!: http://bit.ly/DonateCTVM2. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Additional Links~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ More content: http://CalebCurry.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/CalebTheVideoMaker Google+: https://plus.google.com/+CalebTheVideoMaker2 Twitter: http://twitter.com/calebCurry Amazing Web Hosting - http://bit.ly/ccbluehost (The best web hosting for a cheap price!)
Views: 9430 Caleb Curry
Session6 Data type in Oracle
 
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Session 6: Datatypes In Oracle   ALPHABET           : A-Z , a-z NUMBER              : 0-9 (with precision and scale) DATE / Temporal  : any Date and time (Hours, Minutes, Seconds, Mili-seconds, Timestamp, Timezone etc)   Alphabet + Number = Alphanumeric Data                                     = String / CHARACTER Datatype Category Number                    =  Numeric Datatype Category Date                         = Date Datatype Category 1. CHARACTER Datatype: CHAR, VARCHAR, NCHAR: CHAR is fixed length datatype and VARCHAR is Variable length datatype to store character data. i.e. A-Z , a-z , 0-9 , all keyboard characters etc. The default size is 1 character and it can store maximum up to 2000 bytes. Example : EName, EmpID, PassportNo, SSN, etc. EName CHAR(10) := ‘TOM’; wastage of 7 space after the string EName VARCHAR(10) := ‘TOM’; Spaces can be Reuse which left after the string NCHAR additionally handles NLS(National Language Support). Oracle supports a reliable Unicode datatype through NCHAR , NVARCHAR2 , and NCLOB  VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2: These are Variable length datatype. VARCHAR2 handles alphanumeric character string whereas NVARCHAR2 handles alphanumeric character string with NLS(National Language Support). The default size is 1 character and it can store maximum up to 4000 bytes.   LONG:  Variable length string.  (Maximum size: 2 GB - 1) Only one LONG column is allowed per table. RAW:    Variable length binary string (Maximum size 2000 bytes) LONG RAW: Variable length binary string (Maximum size 2GB) 2. NUMERIC Datatype: NUMBER: It stores Numeric values and performs numeric calculations. NUMBER,   NUMBER(n),   NUMBER(p,s) It stores Numbers up to 38 digits of precision. SeqNo NUMBER;                     1, 123, 12345678 EmpID NUMBER(4);                 1, 123, 1234 Sal NUMBER(7,2);                     23456.78 , 123.45 — correction in video: Sal NUMBER(a7,2); which is wrong please ignore. 1234567 can be a type of NUMBER, NUMBER(7), NUMBER(7,0) It can store both integer and floating point numbers NUMERIC(p,s) FLOAT:   Ex:  EmpSal FLOAT;    FLOAT(7)       Decimal Points allowed DEC(p,s), DECIMAL(p,s) , REAL, DOUBLE PRECISION INTEGER:   Ex:  SSN INTEGER;       Decimal Points are not allowed INT, SMALLINT 3. DATE Datatype: DATE: It stores DATE(Date, Month, Year) and Time(Hour, Minute, Second, AM/PM) and performs calculations with such data. Default DATE format in Oracle is “DD-MON-YY” Based on "Gregorian calendar" where the date ranges from “JAN 1 4712 BC” to “DEC 31 9999 AD” doj DATE;    “18-MAR-2010 12:30:00 PM” TIMESTAMP:    It can store all parameters as DATE datatype and additionally it can have “Fraction of seconds” and TIMESTAMP WITH TIMEZONE / TIMESTAMP WITHOUT TIMEZONE. Range from 0-9 digits, the default size is 6. 4. LOB Datatype: LOB: “Large Object” data. It can store pictures, motion pictures, Textfiles etc. CLOB: “Character Large Object” is used to store structured information like a text file with a specific file format. BLOB: “Binary Large Object” is used to store Un-structured information like Image, JPEG files, MPEG files etc. BFILE: “Binary File” is used to store the pointer to a specific file / Just store the location of a file. Maximum size: (4 GB - 1) * DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter (8 TB to 128 TB) Extra Information: NCLOB : It supports all the character set supported by CLOB and additionally it handles NLS(National Language Support ) Maximum size: (4 GB - 1) * DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter (8 TB to 128 TB) ROWID and UROWID(optional size) Datatype: contains fixed length Binary data. BBBBBBB.RRRR.FFFFF combination of BLOCK-ROW-DATABASE FILE Physical and Logical ROWID Upcoming Session: Session 7: Populating Data into Tables(INSERT Statement): Inserting data into all columns of a table Inserting data into Required columns of a table Inserting NULL value into a table Inserting Special Values(USER / SYSDATE) into a table Supplying data at runtime(using & and &&) THANK YOU :)
Views: 428 Prabhat Sahu
Oracle ADD_MONTHS Function
 
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https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-add_months/ The Oracle ADD_MONTHS allows you to add a specified number of months to a date value, and return the new date value. It’s great for performing calculations on dates, or date arithmetic, which can be hard in many different programming languages. The syntax of the ADD_MONTHS function is: ADD_MONTHS ( input_date, number_months ) The function returns a DATE value. The parameters of this function are: - input_date (mandatory): This is the starting date, or the date that you will add a number of months to. - number_months (mandatory): This is an integer value that represents the number of months to add to input_date. The input_date can be any datetime value, or even a character value that can be converted to a date. Also, the number_months can be any number value, or a character value that can be converted to a number. What if the number of days in the two months are different? For example, adding a month to Jan 31 could result in Feb 31, which does not exist. Well, in this case, Oracle would work out that the date does not exist, and use the last date of the month (e.g. Feb 28). You can also provide a negative value for ADD_MONTHS to subtract months from the specified date. For more information about the Oracle ADD_MONTHS function, including all of the SQL shown in this video and the examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-add_months/
Views: 557 Database Star
Oracle MONTHS_BETWEEN Function
 
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https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-months_between/ The Oracle MONTHS_BETWEEN function allows you to find the number of months between two dates. You can enter two dates and the function returns the difference. This function is often used as part of other calculations. Sometimes you’ll want to know the difference between two dates to perform other functions. The syntax of the MONTHS_BETWEEN function is: MONTHS_BETWEEN(date1, date2) What do these two parameters mean? The function performs date1 minus date2. So, if date1 is larger, the result is positive. If date2 is larger, then the result is negative. What data type is returned? It depends on the values you provide. If the dates are both on the same day of the month (e.g. both on the 10th of the month), then the result is an integer or whole number. If not, then the result will be a decimal value. For more information on the MONTHS_BETWEEN function, including the code used in this video and examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-months_between/
Views: 1201 Database Star
DBMS_RANDOM : Generating Random Data (Numbers, Strings and Dates) in Oracle
 
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A demonstration of how to generate random numbers, strings and dates using the DBMS_RANDOM package in Oracle. For more information see: https://oracle-base.com/articles/misc/dbms_random.php Website: https://oracle-base.com Blog: https://oracle-base.com/blog Twitter: https://twitter.com/oraclebase Cameo by Chet Justice and LC Blog: http://www.oraclenerd.com/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/oraclenerd Cameo appearances are for fun, not an endorsement of the content of this video.
Views: 3874 ORACLE-BASE.com
auto increment in sql oracle - ( Auto increment field )
 
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auto increment in sql oracle ----------------------------------------------- CREATE table customers ( customer_id int not null, customer_name varchar(50), primary key (customer_id) ); create sequence customer_id minvalue 1 start with 1 cache 10; insert into customers values(customer_id.nextval,'maxwel'); -- to drop sequence drop sequence customer_id
Views: 10903 Data Disc
Create Oracle SQL database with auto-incrementing integers for the primary key
 
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Create a new Oracle SQL database using SQL. After the database is created, I demonstrate using an Oracle SQL sequence and trigger to create auto-incrementing integers which are used as the table's primary key.
Views: 12732 Mike Colbert
Oracle SQL MERGE Statement
 
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https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-merge-sql/ In this video, we’ll learn what the Oracle MERGE statement does and how you can use it. What is the MERGE statement? It’s a statement that lets you either insert or update data in a table - all in a single statement! It’s helpful if you’re using an ETL (Extract Transform Load) process when creating or updating a data warehouse. It’s also helpful when loading data into your own database if you’re not creating a data warehouse. It allows you to prevent duplicate data and ensure you have up-to-date data in your table. The syntax looks like this: MERGE INTO table_name USING table_name ON (condition) WHEN MATCHED THEN update_clause DELETE where_clause WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN insert_clause [LOG ERRORS log_errors_clause reject_limit integer | unlimited ] In this video, I also show an Oracle SQL MERGE statement example, so watch the video to find out more. For more information on the MERGE statement and how you can use it in your queries, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-merge-sql/
Views: 1690 Database Star
Tutorial#45 TO_NUMBER function | Convert varchar value into number format
 
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Oracle TO_NUMBER function is used to convert a text/varchar2/varchar/string value into a number value in Oracle 11g or how to convert varchar to number in oracle in the select query or what is conversion function is Oracle SQL or how to use to_number function is Oracle SQL Assignment link: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1ngkXONohE1AfRO2HaUXd1VRx3uZ8bAM1 follow me on: Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/LrnWthr-319371861902642/?ref=bookmarks Contacts Email: [email protected] Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/equalconnect/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/LrnWthR #To_numberFunction #convertionFunctionInSQL #SQLtypeCast
Views: 294 EqualConnect Coach
Oracle CAST Function
 
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https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-cast/ The Oracle CAST function allows you to convert one data type to another. It’s similar to the TO_NUMBER, TO_DATE, and TO_CHAR functions, but allows for more functionality, including converting to many other data types. The syntax of the CAST function is: CAST( {expr | MULTISET (subquery) } AS type_name ) The structure of this function is different to other functions, because it uses the word AS to separate parameters rather than a comma. You can run this function like many other functions, on a single row, which would look like this: CAST( expr AS type_name ) Or, you can run it as though it’s a subquery, using the MULTISET feature: CAST( MULTISET (subquery) AS type_name ) The parameters of the CAST function are: - expr (mandatory choice): This is the value or expression that is to be converted to another data type. - MULTISET (optional): This keyword indicates that the subquery results will return multiple rows, and are then CAST into a collection value. If this is omitted, and the subquery returns multiple rows, it will only return a single row. - subquery (mandatory choice): This is the subquery that can be run to be converted into a collection data type. - type_name (mandatory): This is the Oracle data type that the expr or subquery will be converted to. There are several data types that are compatible with the CAST function, both for converting from and to. You can find the full list in the article mentioned below. For more information about the Oracle CAST function, including all of the SQL shown in this video and the examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-cast/
Views: 2536 Database Star
Tutorial#5 Why/When/Where we use  data type in oracle database
 
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tutorial on oracle data type like Number blob/clob/nclob/(integer)/varchar2/varchar/char/nvarchr2/ncharvarchar2/date/long/rowid Giving the in-depth explanation on the data type of Oracle database -------------------------------------------------- Oracle SQL Practice Question: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1FfoIhRvGfgPnTfEV7ZqBjl1q4sZ2ePr_ -------------------------------------------------- Frequently asked interview question on Oracle SQL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7E30fV8wJA&index=1&list=PLiLpmqwkwkCv4qmtBnz4M3zIs1_ukkboT In this video, you will get the answer to the following question what is Oracle data type where to use Oracle data type why we Oracle data type oracle data types tutorial In this series we cover the following topics: SQL basics, create table oracle, SQL functions, SQL queries, SQL server, SQL developer installation, Oracle database installation, SQL Statement, OCA, Data Types, Types of data types, SQL Logical Operator, SQL Function,Join- Inner Join, Outer join, right outer join, left outer join, full outer join, self-join, cross join, View, SubQuery, Set Operator. follow me on: Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/LrnWthr-319371861902642/?ref=bookmarks Contacts Email: [email protected] Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lrnwthr/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/LrnWthR
Views: 562 EqualConnect Coach
28. SQL DATE datatype
 
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How to insert date data type into a column. Using oracle platform. Please SUBSCRIBE,SHARE and LIKE my channel. More videos : https://youtu.be/TiQZ7Tz8ATA
Views: 124 ProSchool
Date and Time Functions in SQL SERVER Part I || CURRENT_TIMESTAMP and DATEADD
 
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This video will provide you the details of each Date and Time Data Types and Function in SQL Server 2014. I'll be walking through each and every kinds of build in function which are available in SQL Server in my next videos. Date and Time Data Types and Functions :-  CURRENT_TIMESTAMP (Transact-SQL) Returns the current database system timestamp as a datetime value without the database time zone offset. This value is derived from the operating system of the computer on which the instance of SQL Server is running. This function is the ANSI SQL equivalent to GETDATE.  Syntax CURRENT_TIMESTAMP  Arguments Takes no arguments.  Return Type Datetime  Remarks Transact-SQL statements can refer to CURRENT_TIMESTAMP anywhere they can refer to a datetime expression.CURRENT_TIMESTAMP is a nondeterministic function. Views and expressions that reference this column cannot be indexed. *********************************************************************  DATEADD (Transact-SQL) Returns a specified date with the specified number interval (signed integer) added to a specified datepart of that date.  Syntax DATEADD (datepart , number , date )  Arguments datepart Is the part of date to which an integernumber is added. The following table lists all valid datepart arguments. User-defined variable equivalents are not valid. datepart Abbreviations year yy, yyyy quarter qq, q month mm, m dayofyear dy, y day dd, d week wk, ww weekday dw, w hour hh minute mi, n second ss, s millisecond ms microsecond mcs nanosecond ns number Is an expression that can be resolved to an int that is added to a datepart of date. User-defined variables are valid. If you specify a value with a decimal fraction, the fraction is truncated and not rounded. date Is an expression that can be resolved to a time, date, smalldatetime, datetime, datetime2, or datetimeoffset value. date can be an expression, column expression, user-defined variable, or string literal. If the expression is a string literal, it must resolve to a datetime. To avoid ambiguity, use four-digit years. For information about two-digit years,  Return Types The return data type is the data type of the date argument, except for string literals. The return data type for a string literal is datetime. An error will be raised if the string literal seconds scale is more than three positions (.nnn) or contains the time zone offset part.  Return Value  datepart Argument dayofyear, day, and weekday return the same value. Each datepart and its abbreviations return the same value. If datepart is month and the date month has more days than the return month and the date day does not exist in the return month, the last day of the return month is returned. For example, September has 30 days; therefore, the two following statements return 2006-09-30 00:00:00.000: SELECT DATEADD(month, 1, '2006-08-30'); SELECT DATEADD(month, 1, '2006-08-31');  number Argument The number argument cannot exceed the range of int. In the following statements, the argument for number exceeds the range of int by 1. The following error message is returned: "Msg 8115, Level 16, State 2, Line 1. Arithmetic overflow error converting expression to data type int." SELECT DATEADD(year,2147483648, '2006-07-31'); SELECT DATEADD(year,-2147483649, '2006-07-31');  date Argument The date argument cannot be incremented to a value outside the range of its data type. In the following statements, the number value that is added to the date value exceeds the range of the date data type. The following error message is returned: "Msg 517, Level 16, State 1, Line 1 Adding a value to a 'datetime' column caused overflow." SELECT DATEADD(year,2147483647, '2006-07-31'); SELECT DATEADD(year,-2147483647, '2006-07-31');  Return Values for a smalldatetime date and a second or Fractional Seconds datepart The seconds part of a smalldatetime value is always 00. If date is smalldatetime, the following apply: • If datepart is second and number is between -30 and +29, no addition is performed. • If datepart is second and number is less than-30 or more than +29, addition is performed beginning at one minute. • If datepart is millisecond and number is between -30001 and +29998, no addition is performed. • If datepart is millisecond and number is less than -30001 or more than +29998, addition is performed beginning at one minute.
Views: 344 Softtech forum
Oracle EXP Function
 
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https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-mathematical-functions/ The Oracle EXP function returns the mathematical value of e raised to the nth power. EXP is short for “exponential”. The value of “e” is a mathematical constant, and it’s roughly equal to 2.71. The syntax of the EXP function is: EXP( number ) We don't need to specify the value of e, because it's a standard value (kind of like pi). The parameter for EXP is a number which represents the power to raise e to. For example, if the number is 2, then the function calculates e to the power of 2 and returns that number. For more information about the Oracle EXP function, including all of the SQL shown in this video and the examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-mathematical-functions/
Views: 178 Database Star
Oracle GREATEST Function
 
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https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-greatest/ The Oracle GREATEST function is a useful function, but I don’t think it’s very well understood. It returns the greatest or largest value in a set of values. You can provide the values, and use numbers or text values. The syntax for the Oracle GREATEST function is: GREATEST(expr1 [, expr_n]) The expr1 is the first expression to use for your comparison. Expr_n is one or more expressions to use in the comparison, separated by commas. This is optional. So how is GREATEST calculated? If the parameters are numeric, the GREATEST function finds the largest number. If the parameters are characters, the function finds the latest value if they were sorted alphabetically (using their character values). What data type is returned? It depends on the parameters you provide. It could be the same as the parameters you provide, or VARCHAR2 if the parameters are all characters. You can also use the GREATEST function with dates. It’s also the opposite of the LEAST function. For more information on the GREATEST function, including the SQL used in this video and the examples, read the related post here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-greatest/
Views: 341 Database Star
How to convert number to text in Oracle SQL
 
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How to convert number to text in Oracle SQL
Database vs Spreadsheet - Advantages and Disadvantages
 
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In this video, we will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of spreadsheets vs databases. What is a spreadsheet? It is an electronic ledger, an electronic version of paper accounting worksheets. It was created to facilitate people who needed to store their accounting information in tabular form digitally. So, it is possible to create tables in a spreadsheet. This is one reason some people believe spreadsheets and databases are interchangeable, while, in reality, they aren’t. There are similarities between the two. Both can contain a large amount of tabular data and can use existing data to make calculations. Third, neither spreadsheets nor databases are typically used by a single person, so many users will work with the data. The differences between the two forms of data storage lie in the way these three characteristics are implemented. Ok. Imagine a spreadsheet. Every cell is treated as a unique entity. It can store any type of information – a date, an integer value, a string name. And then, not only can we have different types of values in various cells, but we can also apply a specific format to these cells. This is not inherent to databases. They contain only raw data. Each cell is a container of a single data value. It is the smallest piece of information there is. You must pre-set the type of data contained in a certain field. This feature prevents inadvertent mistakes – for example, in a field containing date values, should the user try to insert a string, the software will show an error and she will have the chance to correct herself. This won’t happen in Excel – if you insert a string in the column with date values, you wouldn’t obtain an error message, and Excel will store the string value. Follow us on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/c/365DataScience Connect with us on our social media platforms: Website: https://bit.ly/2TrLiXb Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/365datascience Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/365datascience Twitter: https://twitter.com/365datascience LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/365datascience Prepare yourself for a career in data science with our comprehensive program: https://bit.ly/2XIOUSS Get in touch about the training at: [email protected] Comment, like, share, and subscribe! We will be happy to hear from you and will get back to you!
Views: 29063 365 Data Science
Oracle SQL Tutorial 24 - Important Data Types
 
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In the upcoming videos we are going to discuss data types in depth, but I don't want to drown you in all of the details. Because of that, I'm giving you this video which is going to introduce you to the most important data types. Then, in the upcoming videos, I'll describe them in more depth. One of the data types we've already discussed in this video is NUMBER. This data type is used to, obviously, store a number. It can be used to store integers (whole numbers), or numbers with decimals. There are two other numeric data types you should know of. BINARY_FLOAT and BINARY_DOUBLE are both numeric data types that are known as floating point numbers. A floating point number is often used for large numbers that have decimal places where it is acceptable to not be completely precise. What I mean by this is that these numbers can only store numbers correctly up to a certain decimal point. If you need perfect precision, you will want to use the NUMBER data type. Now storing numbers is good sometimes, but occasionally you will want to store string data. String data can be any sequence of characters, including numbers. By telling the database that a column is a string data type, the database knows how to treat that column. There are four important string data types that you need to know about. The first two are CHAR and NCHAR. These data types are used to store a fixed-length string. So for example, you can say you want to store 12 characters. This means that every value for this column will be exactly 12 characters. If you insert less than 12 characters, the data will be padded with spaces. This means you will want to use one of these data types when every value in the column is the same length. What is the difference between CHAR and NCHAR? CHAR uses what is known as ASCII while NCHAR uses Unicode. The difference is what characters are allowed and how much space each character takes. ASCII takes up less space but only supports English, numbers, and some symbols. UNICODE allows you to store characters from multiple languages but takes up more space. Those were both fixed-length string. What if you want to store data that changes in length? That is where VARCHAR2 and NVARCHAR2 come in. When it comes to storing dates, the data types that are most important are DATE and TIMESTAMP. Date can be used to store dates and time. Timestamp is a data type that can be used to store an exact moment in time. Lastly, there are interval types. These store a date range. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Support me! http://www.patreon.com/calebcurry Subscribe to my newsletter: http://bit.ly/JoinCCNewsletter Donate!: http://bit.ly/DonateCTVM2. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Additional Links~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ More content: http://CalebCurry.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/CalebTheVideoMaker Google+: https://plus.google.com/+CalebTheVideoMaker2 Twitter: http://twitter.com/calebCurry Amazing Web Hosting - http://bit.ly/ccbluehost (The best web hosting for a cheap price!)
Views: 7721 Caleb Curry
SQL Complete Tutorial - ADD or SUBSTRACT or MULTIPLY between two columns - Chapter 6
 
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In this video, I have explained how to add_subtract_multiply the two columns from the particular table. Comment - Follow - Like : https://www.facebook.com/TechyVickyBlog https://www.twitter.com/techyvicky https://www.pinterest.com/techyvicky/techy-vicky-blog https://plus.google.com/109896475845510580320/
Views: 40584 Vicky's Blog
Oracle CEIL Function
 
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https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-ceil/ The Oracle CEIL function, short for “ceiling”, will return the smallest integer value greater than the specified number. In other words, it rounds up to the nearest whole number. It’s the opposite of the FLOOR function, which rounds down. The syntax of CEIL is: CEIL(number) The number parameter can be any numeric data type. The CEIL function will return a number in the same data type as the parameter. So, you can use CEIL with decimal numbers, which is actually where CEIL works best. You can use it with whole numbers too. It won’t show an error, it just might display the same value as provided (e.g. CEIL(8) would be 8). You can also use functions inside CEIL. For example, CEIL(SUM(salary)) will SUM all of the salary values, and then round them up to the nearest whole number. Like with all functions, the Oracle CEIL function can also use column aliases. So, instead of having your column labelled “CEIL(8.12)” or “CEIL(salary)”, you can label your column “salary_rounded” or something that makes more sense. The CEIL function is similar to the ROUND function. However, ROUND will round up or down, where CEIL will always round up. The TRUNC function will also do some kind of rounding, but it removes decimals from a number which may cause it to “round” down. For more information, including the code used in the examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-ceil/
Views: 721 Database Star
SQL Tutorial - 7: Data-Types in SQL (Part-2)
 
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In this tutorial we';; check out the data type options we have available for use in SQL. We'll talk about Bigint, int, smallint, tinyint, decimal, number, float, char, varchar, blob, datetime, date, time and year.
Views: 103874 The Bad Tutorials
How to convert numbers into rupees in oracle
 
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How to convert numbers in to rupees or dollor in oracle ,oracle developer ,oracle reports,oracle forms,plsql , sql
Views: 203 Gulfaraz Anis
Sql Training Online - Cast Function
 
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Learn about the Cast function in the SQL Language. Visit http://www.SqlTrainingOnline.com for 30 more FREE videos. The Microsoft SQL Server 2012 cast function is used to convert or change a column datatype when you are querying or filtering in a SQL statement You can visit me at any of the following: SQL Training Online: http://www.sqltrainingonline.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/sql_by_joey Google+: https://plus.google.com/#100925239624117719658/posts LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/joeyblue Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/sqltrainingonline
Views: 17351 Joey Blue
Oracle FLOOR Function
 
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https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-ceil/ The Oracle FLOOR function will return the largest integer value less than the specified number. In other words, it rounds down to the nearest whole number. It’s the opposite of the CEIL function, which rounds up. The syntax of FLOOR is: FLOOR(number) The number parameter can be any numeric data type. The function will return a number in the same data type as the parameter. So, you can use FLOOR with decimal numbers, which is actually where FLOOR works best. You can use it with whole numbers too. It won’t show an error, it just might display the same value as provided (e.g. FLOOR(5) would be 5). You can also use functions inside FLOOR. For example, FLOOR(SUM(salary)) will SUM all of the salary values, and then round them down to the nearest whole number. Just like with all functions, the Oracle FLOOR function can also use column aliases. So, instead of having your column labelled “FLOOR(8.12)” or “FLOOR(salary)”, you can label your column “salary_rounded” or something that makes more sense. The FLOOR function is similar to the ROUND function. However, ROUND will round up or down, where FLOOR will always round down. The TRUNC function will also do some kind of rounding, but it removes decimals from a number which may cause it to “round” down. For more information, including the code used in the examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-ceil/
Views: 587 Database Star
Tutorial#47 Ceil function| Round up the nearest whole number|number function in Oracle SQL database
 
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The CEIL function returns the smallest integer value that is greater than or equal to a number. or Numeric Functions - Ceil, Floor, Round, mod, replace or How to use Ceil function in SQL or what are the numeric function oracle SQL database Assignment link will be available soon: SQL basics, create table oracle, SQL functions, SQL queries, SQL server, SQL developer installation, Oracle database installation, SQL Statement, OCA, Data Types, Types of data types, SQL Logical Operator, SQL Function,Join- Inner Join, Outer join, right outer join, left outer join, full outer join, self-join, cross join, View, SubQuery, Set Operator. follow me on: Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/LrnWthr-319371861902642/?ref=bookmarks Contacts Email: [email protected] Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/equalconnect/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/LrnWthR
Views: 72 EqualConnect Coach
Oracle SQL Generate Random Alphanumeric String
 
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In this video, you’ll learn how to generate random alphanumeric characters in an SQL statement in Oracle SQL You can use Oracle SQL to generate random alphanumeric string values by using one of the built-in functions. This function allows you to specify the type of string to generate - upper or lowercase alpha characters only, mixed alpha characters, uppercase alphanumeric characters, or any printable characters. You can also specify the length of the string to generate, This can be a fixed number, or you can use another function to generate a random number to use for the length! You’ll see some examples of generating random alphanumeric string values in this video. For more information and tips on Oracle SQL, check out DatabaseStar.com: https://www.databasestar.com/
Views: 661 Database Star
How to Resolve Oracle SQL Parent Key Not Found (ORA-02291)
 
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In this video, we’ll explain what the ORA-02291 “parent key not found” error is, see an example, and look at how to resolve it. This error usually happens when we try to insert data into a table. It looks like this: Error is: ORA-02291: integrity constraint (constraint_name) violated - parent key not found So what does this error mean? It means we’re trying to insert data into a child table, and there is no related record in the parent table. If a foreign key has been set up to enforce this relationship, there needs to be a parent to insert a child that refers to it. Watch the video to see an example of this error as well as how to resolve it. For more information on Oracle SQL, refer to the Database Star website here: https://www.databasestar.com/
Views: 5455 Database Star
CONCAT & PIPE "||" Operators in Oracle | Oracle Tutorials for Beginners
 
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CONCAT & PIPE "||" Operators in Oracle | Oracle Tutorials for Beginners Oracle Tutorials for Beginners CONCAT Operators in Oracle SQL CONCAT Operators in Oracle Database CONCAT Operators in Oracle SQL Database || Operator in Oracle concatenate in oracle sql developer oracle concatenate columns with space oracle concatenate rows into string oracle concatenate string and number oracle concatenate all columns into string oracle concatenate columns with comma using concat function in oracle concatenate function in oracle 11g concatenate in oracle sql developer oracle sql concatenate column values concatenation operator in oracle concatenation operator in sql server oracle concatenate columns with space oracle concatenate string and number oracle concatenate rows into string concatenate in oracle sql query concatenate sql query concat sql server 2008 sql concatenate columns concatenate sql oracle sql concatenate rows mysql concatenate string sql concatenate string and int sql concatenate column values
Views: 1200 Oracle PL/SQL World
How to add text before value in Oracle SQL
 
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How to add text before value in Oracle SQL
SQL: Most Common Date Conversions
 
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This video will walk you through the top 10 most common date conversion functions. This can be handy when working with a date format that the audience of a report might prefer. Often times you might find a date in integer form and need to convert to a date data type or convert it to a Year Month format. Github Query: https://github.com/ProfessorPitch/ProfessorPitch/blob/master/SQL/Dates/Date%20Conversions.sql
Views: 8 ProfessorPitch
how to auto increment varchar in sql server
 
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how to auto increment varchar in sql server
Views: 16377 Kannababu Banna
Date type conversion from any date format to any date format in DataStage
 
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Use the type conversion functions to change the type of an argument. StringToDate Returns a date from the given string in the given format. You do not have to specify a format string if your string contains a date in the default format yyyy-mm-dd. Input: string (string) [,format (string)] Output: result (date) Examples: If the column mylink.mystring contains the string ″1958--08--18″, then the following function returns the date 1958--08--18. StringToDate(mylink.mystring) If the column mylink.mystring contains the string ″18:08:1958″, then the following function returns the date 1958--08--18. StringToDate(mylink.mystring,"%dd:%mm:%yyyy")
Views: 6488 WingsOfTechnology
ORACLE SQL- 8. double ampersand
 
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insead of repeating the same value always we can make it as a fixed value using double ampersand
Views: 1110 Ban3 GaiN
How to convert a String to a DateTime in C# NET 2012
 
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convert a String to a DateTime.
Views: 8310 Mr Code Monster
Oracle INSTR Function
 
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https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-instr/ The Oracle INSTR function allows you to search a string for the occurrence of another string, and return the position of the occurrence within a string. It’s helpful for finding if a string exists within another string. It can also be used for performing further string manipulation on, like substrings. The syntax of the INSTR function is: INSTR(string, substring [, start_position [, occurrence]]) These parameters are: string: The text string that is searched in. It’s usually the larger of the two strings. Mandatory. substring: The text to search for. It’s usually the smaller of the two strings. Mandatory. start_position: This is an integer value which indicates where in the string value to start the search. Optional, and the default is 1. occurrence: The occurrence of the substring to search for. Optional, and the default is 1, which means the first occurrence. Also, the searches performed by the INSTR function are case-sensitive. The value returned by INSTR is a number value, which is the number in the location of the string where the substring is found. The first character is 1. For more information about the Oracle INSTR function, including all of the SQL shown in this video and the examples, read the related article here: https://www.databasestar.com/oracle-instr/
Views: 5425 Database Star
SQL Server - Formatting a Date
 
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Formatting a Date in SQL Server http://www.ReportingGuru.com Email us at [email protected] if you need help, custom reports, or reporting architecture setup. Our phone number is 1-(800) 921-4759 Reporting Guru is a US based development company with all resources located in the US. We have many senior level developers with over a decade of development experience. Please let us know if you would like to discuss your requirements or issues free of charge. Our process is taking your requirements and suggesting the best architecture or approach without trying to sell you any specific software. We work as needed and only charge for the hours we work. We do not charge a retainer and there is no minimum charge. We offer the following services: Custom Report Writing | Consulting | Database Development & Integration. Some of our specialties are: --SQL Server Reporting Services SSRS / SQL Server / SQL Server Integration --Services SSIS / SQL Server Analysis Services SSAS --Custom Application Development / Maintenance --Oracle --MySQL --Crystal Reports / Business Objects --BIRT --.NET Development --PHP Development --SharePoint --Microsoft Dynamics --Access --Excel and Pivot Tables --More! CUSTOM REPORT WRITING Our experienced data report writers take your report & business requirements to build the custom reports you need. We deliver reports on demand or on a timed schedule. CONSULTING When your data and reporting team needs guidance or whether you need to build new reports, convert reports, enhance existing reports or need advice on finding the right reporting solution for your business ReportingGuru is here to help. DATABASE DEVELOPMENT & INTEGRATION We create and develop the necessary structure to house business data in a clear and easily accessible manner, so you have the tools to pull the reports you need easily. CUSTOM SOFTWARE & APPS We also offer custom applications for our clients like our Dashboard Guru and Quickbooks Enterprise Connector http://www.reportingguru.com/products/. Reporting Guru's dashboarding software will give interactivity to static web based reports. Our Quickbooks Connector will pull data from Quickbooks into a database for custom reporting purposes. Formatting a Date in SQL Server http://www.ReportingGuru.com Email us at [email protected] or call 1-(800) 921-4759.
Views: 12095 Reporting Guru
OCA 1Z0 - 808 ||  Java 8 New Features Date & Time API (Joda API)  On 28-07-2018
 
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Oracle Java Certification: Shortest Way To Crack OCA 1Z0-808 Just @ Rs 640/- 1. For Java SE 8 Programmer I Exam 2. Topic wise Tests and Grand Tests 3. 280 Realistic Questions With Clear Explanation 4. Study Material (408 Pages) 5. Question Bank (107 Pages) 6. Videos (63 Sessions) Use the below links to access Durga Sir Videos and Downloadable Materials and Topic wise Tests and Grand Tests with Life-Time Access. 1. Oracle Java Certification: Shortest Way To Crack OCA 1Z0-808 Link: https://goo.gl/vcMKjz 2. Java 8 New Features In Simple Way Link: https://goo.gl/F2NfZi 3. Java 9 New Features In Simple Way: JShell, JPMS and More Link: https://goo.gl/s9PP1p 4. Complete JDBC Programming Part-1 Link: https://goo.gl/uT9sav 5. Complete JDBC Programming Part-2 Link: https://goo.gl/VmhM7t For More Info: DURGASOFT Online Team mail: [email protected] Ph:8885252627,7207212427/28
MySQL 30 - INT Data Type
 
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The last section of videos covered the string data types, now we are going to move on to the numeric data types. This video is going to discuss the INTEGER data types, or the INT data types. These data types are used to store whole numbers. That is, numbers without anything after a decimal. Just like with the TEXT data type, INT is broken up into multiple data types that can be used. It is actually broken up into 5 different data types. TINYINT, SMALLINT, MEDIUMINT, INT, BIGINT. Now, the confusing part here is the naming. That's because the only thing we have to compare this naming to is the TEXT data types. But they don't follow a consistent naming convention. For example, MEDIUMTEXT is larger than TEXT, but MEDIUMINT is smaller than INT. Additionally, there are 5 data types for the INT data type group, and lastly the biggest INT data type is called BIGINT whereas the biggest TEXT data type is called LONGTEXT. These are used to store exact values. What that means is that if you store a number and use it, you expect it to maintain precision. There are data types that are used for estimated values which we are going to discuss in more detail in an upcoming video. For now, let's focus on INT data types. You can find the exact storage limits for each of these, but here is some info: TINYINT - 255 SMALLINT - 65535 MEDIUMINT - 16 Million INT - 4 Billion BIGINT - Stinkin' a lot (18446744073709551615) Now note, in this situation, we will have to label each one of these as UNSIGNED. An unsigned number does not allow for negatives, but allows higher positive numbers. You can look up the INT data types to get the exact ranges for signed and unsigned. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Support me! http://www.patreon.com/calebcurry Subscribe to my newsletter: http://bit.ly/JoinCCNewsletter Donate!: http://bit.ly/DonateCTVM2. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Additional Links~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ More content: http://CalebCurry.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/CalebTheVideoMaker Google+: https://plus.google.com/+CalebTheVideoMaker2 Twitter: http://twitter.com/calebCurry Amazing Web Hosting - http://bit.ly/ccbluehost (The best web hosting for a cheap price!)
Views: 4840 Caleb Curry
Tutorial#33 How to Join  two Columns using concatenation function in Oracle SQL Database
 
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How to concatenate/join/combine two or more columns, string, Number using Concatenation Function or How to Concatenate String and Integer Values in SQL Server or Concatenate String and column by using Concatenation function in Oracle SQL Or How to use Concatenation Function in Oracle database Assignment link: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1u-2Mj-27KxM5FZwRTVXNv7dwXQsAtzkn In this series we cover the following topics: SQL basics, create table oracle, SQL functions, SQL queries, SQL server, SQL developer installation, Oracle database installation, SQL Statement, OCA, Data Types, Types of data types, SQL Logical Operator, SQL Function,Join- Inner Join, Outer join, right outer join, left outer join, full outer join, self-join, cross join, View, SubQuery, Set Operator. follow me on: Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/LrnWthr-319371861902642/?ref=bookmarks Contacts Email: [email protected] Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/equalconnect/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/LrnWthR
Views: 140 EqualConnect Coach
Learning Zone : P/L SQL Programming how to convert Number to Word , By Dia Rashid
 
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Oracle P/L SQL Programming how to convert Number to Word , Can be used in Oracle form 10g or Report 10g , example convert Total of value in numbers to be in word . By Dia Rashid. #OnlineLz.com #SQL #Python #MySql #Oracle
Views: 748 Dia Rashid
Oracle SQL Tutorial 15 - How to Add Primary Key Constraints
 
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The goal of this video is to take the CREATE TABLE statement we have and walk through the different ways to create primary keys. This and foreign keys are the most common constraints, so we need to make sure that you have this one down. Once we have a more complex database design with multiple tables, we will learn the proper way to create foreign keys. For now, I am going to keep all of our constraints at the column level, unnamed. The only exception is the primary key, because that is what we are focusing on in this video. The first way to create the primary key is at the column level, unnamed. The primary key is very important because it what we use to distinguish rows from one another. Every table you create is going to need a primary key, and I suggest putting a lot of effort into making sure your keys are set up correctly and organized. --Delete the table if needed: DROP TABLE users; CREATE TABLE users( user_id NUMBER PRIMARY KEY, username VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) NOT NULL UNIQUE ) The next way is at the column level, but named: --Delete the table: DROP TABLE users; CREATE TABLE users( user_id NUMBER CONSTRAINT users_pk PRIMARY KEY, username VARCHAR2(50 CHAR)NOT NULL UNIQUE ) The general naming convention here is the table name followed by an underscore, followed by pk for primary key. Finally, the third way, which is at the table level, is the way we are going to create our primary key: --Delete the table: DROP TABLE users; CREATE TABLE users( user_id NUMBER, username VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) NOT NULL UNIQUE, CONSTRAINT users_pk PRIMARY KEY (user_id) ) Now, once you've created these constraints, you can use Oracle SQL Developer to find these constraints. Open your databases in the connections tab and find the table in the Tables folder. Double click your table and travel to the Constraints tab. You can tell here that the UNIQUE constraint still exists in this table, but it has a pretty disgusting name. It kind of wants to make me puke. Referencing that constraint in the future with that wacky name would be a burden. Engrave these three options in your head so that you can use any of them whenever you need and can read other peoples' code. Thank you for sticking with the series thus far. In the next video, we will be…doing something. See you then! :) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/calebcurry Subscribe to my newsletter: http://bit.ly/JoinCCNewsletter Donate!: http://bit.ly/DonateCTVM2. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Additional Links~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ More content: http://CalebCurry.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/CalebTheVideoMaker Google+: https://plus.google.com/+CalebTheVideoMaker2 Twitter: http://twitter.com/calebCurry Amazing Web Hosting - http://bit.ly/ccbluehost (The best web hosting for a cheap price!)
Views: 18242 Caleb Curry
oracle to ms excel using forms 6i | Ten Minute Code
 
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Below Code declare application ole2.obj_type; workbooks ole2.obj_type; workbook ole2.obj_type; worksheets ole2.obj_type; worksheet ole2.obj_type; cell ole2.obj_type; arglist ole2.list_type; row_num number; col_num number; fontObj ole2.obj_type; cursor rec is select emp_id,emp_nm,to_char(join_dt,'dd/mm/rrrr') date_of_birth from emp_mast where join_dt is not null; procedure SetCellValue(rowid number,colid number,cellValue varchar) is begin arglist := ole2.create_arglist; ole2.add_arg(arglist,rowid); ole2.add_arg(arglist,colid); cell:= ole2.get_obj_property(worksheet,'Cells',arglist); fontObj := ole2.get_obj_property(cell,'Font'); ole2.destroy_arglist(arglist); ole2.set_property(cell,'value',cellValue); ole2.set_property(fontObj,'Size',16); ole2.set_property(fontObj,'BOLD',1); ole2.set_property(fontObj,'ColorIndex',7); ole2.release_obj(cell); end SetCellValue; procedure app_init is begin application := ole2.create_obj('Excel.Application'); ole2.set_property(application,'Visible',true); workbooks := ole2.get_obj_property(application,'workbooks'); workbook := ole2.invoke_obj(workbooks,'add'); worksheets := ole2.get_obj_property(application,'worksheets'); worksheet := ole2.invoke_obj(worksheets,'add'); ole2.set_property(worksheet,'Name','Emp Sheet'); end app_init; procedure save_excel(path varchar,filename varchar) is begin OLE2.Release_Obj(worksheet); OLE2.Release_Obj(worksheets); -- Save the Excel file created If path is not null then Arglist := OLE2.Create_Arglist; OLE2.Add_Arg(Arglist,path||'\'||file_name||'.xls'); OLE2.Invoke(workbook, 'SaveAs', Arglist); OLE2.Destroy_Arglist(Arglist); end if; end save_excel; begin app_init; row_num:=1; col_num:=1; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,'Emp Code'); col_num:=col_num + 1; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,'Emp Name'); col_num:=col_num + 1; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,'Date of Birth'); for i in rec loop row_num:=row_num + 1; col_num:=1; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,i.emp_id); col_num:=2; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,i.emp_nm); col_num:=3; SetCellValue(row_num,col_num,i.date_of_birth); end loop; save_excel('d:\excel_export','emp_data'); OLE2.Release_Obj(workbook); OLE2.Release_Obj(workbooks); OLE2.Release_Obj(application); end;
Views: 2652 abdulquium
Get Table Names with Column Names and Data Types in SQL Server - SQL Server Tutorial
 
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In this video ,we will generate the script that will return us all the table names with column names and data type of those columns. We often need this information. Let's say we are going to prepare mapping document for load the data from Source Database to Destination database. We can get the list of all tables with column names and data types from Source Database and Destination Database and then paste in Excel and map the required input columns to output columns for ETL Process. Blog link with scripts used in video http://sqlage.blogspot.com/2015/02/get-all-tables-with-column-names-and.html
Views: 52671 TechBrothersIT
SQL Server    Select from Date Part of DateTime Field with Cast
 
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Declare @t1 Table (OrderNumber int, OrderDate DateTime) INSERT INTO @t1 VALUES (1, GETDATE()) INSERT INTO @t1 VALUES (2,GETDATE()) Select * from @t1 Select * from @t1 where CAST(OrderDate as Date) = '2017-05-27'
Views: 663 CKWTech LLC
Smart tMap: Automatic Input-Output Data Type Conversion
 
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See what's new in our latest version - http://www.talend.com/products This video shows how to let tMap automatically convert data types when the input and output schemas across tMap are of different data types. Conventionally, in a Job that contains a tMap, if the input and output columns across a mapping are of different data types, the Job would fail because of compiling errors. Now with this feature activated, the tMap becomes smart: it automatically converts the data type at runtime without needing any additional components or manual configuration.
Views: 2752 Talend
SQL:Max/Min Functions
 
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In this tutorial, you'll learn how to use max min functions in sql queries. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 4930 radhikaravikumar
Функция CAST в MySQL  Преобразование типов данных в базах данных
 
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Рубрика по базам данных: http://zametkinapolyah.ru/zametki-o-mysql/sqlite/ Рубрика MySQL: http://zametkinapolyah.ru/zametki-o-mysql/server-mysql Паблик блога в ВК: https://vk.com/zametkinapolyah Тематическая группа в ВК: https://vk.com/zametki_bd Помощь проекту: WMR: R288272666982 WMZ: Z293550531456 Яндекс.Деньги: 410011531129223 -- MySQL сервер умеет делать преобразование строки в число автоматически -- все зависит от контекста операции. Такое преобразование обычно называют неявным. SELECT 1+'10'; SELECT 1+'10a'; SELECT 1+'10a25'; SELECT 1+'a10a'; SELECT CONCAT(2, " test string!"); -- Число в строку в базах данных MySQL сервера можно преобразовать явно, используя -- специальную функцию CAST(). -- Функция CAST принимает ровно два аргумента: первый аргумент - это значение, которое необходимо преобразовать, второй аргумент - это тип данных, в который конвертируется значение. SELECT 38.8, CAST(38.8 AS CHAR); SELECT 38.8, CAST(38.8 AS CHAR(1)); SELECT 38.8, CONCAT(38.8); -- Кроме того, выполнении операций сравнения, MySQL сервер пытается привести значенияя разных типов данных к одному, если такое вообще возможно, а затем сравнивать их. Но об этом мы уже говорили, ссылка будет в описании. -- Поскольку числа с плавающей точкой не всегда могут быть представлены точно, мы можем получить неожиданные результаты при сравнении значений таких чисел. SELECT '28015376320243458' = 28015376320243458; SELECT '28015376320243459' = 28015376320243489; -- Такое поведение MySQL сервера связано с тем, что происходит округление чисел: SELECT '28015376320243459'+0.0; -- Чтобы избежать таких ошибок, выполняйте явные преобразования строки в число, используя функцию CAST(): SELECT CAST('28015376320243459' AS UNSIGNED) = 28015376320243459; -- Точность преобразований и округлений чисел в MySQL зависит от многих факторов: версии компилятора, архитектуры процессора, версии операционной системы и др.
SQL Basics Part-3 Using Text, Number and Date Criteria, wildcards, AND & OR Operators
 
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An easy way to learn SQL in SQL Server Management Studio Environment
Views: 204 SQL Learn & Share