Bahārāt (Arabic: بهارات) is a spice mixture or blend used in Middle Eastern cuisine. Bahārāt is the Arabic word for 'spices' (the plural form of bahār 'spice'). The mixture of finely ground spices is often used to season lamb, fish, chicken, beef, and soups and may be used as a condiment.
Turkish baharat includes mint as the modal ingredient. In Tunisia, bharat refers to a simple mixture of dried rosebuds and ground cinnamon, often combined with black pepper. In the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, loomi (dried black lime) and saffron may also be used for the kebsa spice mixture (also called "Gulf baharat").
The mixture can be rubbed into meat or mixed with olive oil and lime juice to form a marinade.
Ras el hanout or Rass el hanout (Arabic: رأس الحانوت raʾs al-ḥānūt, is a spice mix from North Africa. It plays a similar role in North African cuisine as garam masala does in Indian cuisine. The name is Arabic for "head of the shop" (similar to the English expression "top-shelf") and implies a mixture of the best spices the seller has to offer. Ras el hanout is used in many savory dishes, sometimes rubbed on meat or fish, or stirred into couscous or rice. The mix is generally associated with Morocco, although neighboring North African countries use it as well.
There is no definitive composition of spices that makes up ras el hanout. Each shop, company, or family may have their own blend. The mixture usually consists of over a dozen spices, in different proportions, although some purists insist that it must contain exactly 12 items. Commonly used ingredients include cardamom, cumin, clove, cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, allspice, dry ginger, chili peppers, coriander seed, peppercorn, sweet and hot paprika, fenugreek, and dry turmeric. Some spices may be particular to the region, such as ash berries, chufa, grains of paradise, orris root, monk's pepper, cubebs, dried rosebud, fennel seed or aniseed, galangal, long pepper. Ingredients may be toasted before being ground or pounded in a mortar and mixed together. Some preparations include salt or sugar, but that is generally not the accepted practice. Garlic, saffron, nuts or dry herbs are generally not included, as they are usually added to dishes individually, but some commercial preparations, particularly in Europe and North America, may contain them.
The composition of ras el hanout differs somewhat from the Baharat spice mix, but they differ more by the types of dishes they are associated with and by region rather than the ingredients in them. Although used by Berber people, it should not be confused with "berbere" spice mix from Ethiopia.
In the past, ras el hanout sometimes included cantharides in its ingredients, for its aphrodisiac properties, but the sale of cantharides was banned in Morocco in the 1990s.
Advieh or adwiya (Persian: ادویه) is a spice mixture used in Iranian cuisine and Iraqi cuisine.It is used in rice dishes, as well as in chicken and bean dishes. Although its specific composition varies from the Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea, common ingredients include turmeric, cinnamon, cardamom, cloves, rose petals or rose buds, cumin, and ginger. It may also include ground golpar, saffron, nutmeg, black pepper, mace, coriander, or sesame.
There are two basic varieties of advieh:
• Advieh-e polo - used in rice dishes (usually sprinkled over rice after the rice has been cooked)
• Advieh-e khoresh - used in stews or as a rub for grilled or roasted meats
Advieh used for stews often includes saffron, sesame, cinnamon, rose buds, coriander, cardamom, and other spices.
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Kebab, (also kebap, kabob, kebob, or kabab) is a Middle Eastern, Eastern Mediterranean, and South Asian dish of pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables roasted or grilled on a skewer or spit originating either in the Eastern Mediterranean, where it is mentioned by Homer or the Middle East, before spreading worldwide. In American English, kebab with no qualification refers to shish kebab cooked on a skewer, whereas in Europe it refers to doner kebab. In the Middle East, however, kebab refers to meat that is cooked over or next to flames; large or small cuts of meat, or even ground meat; it may be served on plates, in sandwiches, or as dürüm.